Center for
Lifelong Music Making
Research Studies

 

Research Findings about Music-Making, Language and Reading

  • Music and language overlap in the brain, sometimes utilizing the same neural networks.
  • Music-making enhances auditory processing (correlated with higher reading achievement).
  • Ability to keep a steady beat is highly correlated with reading achievement.
  • Dyslexia is a rhythmic entrainment problem in the brain.
  • Music-making is correlated with increased reading abilities.
  • Pitch awareness is correlated with phonemic awareness and reading achievement.
  • Prosody (melody of language) is correlated with reading comprehension.
  • Repeated reading improves comprehension.
  • Eyes automatically tracks same-language subtitles in music videos, causing inescapable reading behavior.
  • Singing songs with same-language-subtitled music videos (words light up as they are sung) dramatically increases literacy.


NEUROLOGICAL RESEARCH ABOUT MUSIC

Bonacina, S., Krizman, J., White-Schwock, T., Kraus, K (2018). Clapping in time parallels literacy and calls upon overlapping neural mechanisms in early readers. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Special Issue: The Neurosciences and Music VI, 1–11. https://www.brainvolts.northwestern.edu/documents/Bonacina_nyas_NSM_b16_13704_1748026_final.pdf

Carr, K.W., Tierney, A., White-Schwock, T., Kraus. N. (2016). Intertrial auditory neural stability supports beat synchronization in preschoolers. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. Fe., 17, 76-82.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4763990/

Colling, L., Noble, H., Goswami, U. (2017). Neural entrainment and sensorimotor synchronization to the beat in children with developmental dyslexia: An eeg study. Frontiers in Neuroscience, July 12. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2017.00360/full

Costa-Giomi, E. (1999). The effect of three years of piano instruction on children’s cognitive development. Journal of Research in Music Education, 47 (3), 198-212. EJ 604 142.

Cumming, R., Wilson, A., Leong, V., Goswami, U. (2015). Awareness of rhythm patterns in speech and music in children with specific language impairments. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 9(672). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287813239_Awareness_of_Rhythm_Patterns_in_Speech_and_Music_in_Children_with_Specific_Language_Impairments

Degé, F., Schwarzer, G. (2011). The effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. Frontiers in Psychology, 2: 124. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3121007/

Fujioka, T., Ross, B., Kakigi, R., Pantev, C., & Trainor, L. (2006). One year of musical training affects development of auditory cortical-evoked fields in young children. Brain, 129 (10), 2593-2608.

Ho, Y., Cheung, M., & Chan, A.S. (2003). Music training improves verbal but not visual memory; Cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. Neuropsychology, 17 (3), 439-450.

Hyde, K.L., Lerch, J., Norton, A., Forgeard, M., Winner, E., Evans, A.C., Schlaug, G. (2009).  Musical training shapes structural brain development. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(10), 3019-3025. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2996392/

Kraus, N., Chandrasekarn, B. (2010). Music training for the development of auditory skills. Nature Reviews, 11, 599-605. http://www.brainvolts.northwestern.edu/documents/KrausChandrasekeran_NRN10.pdf

Loui, P., Kroog, K., Zuk, J., Winner, E., Schlaug, G. (2011). Relating pitch awareness to phonemic awareness in children: implications for tone-deafness and dyslexia. Frontiers in Psychology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3108552/?tool=pubmed

Moreno, S., Marques, C., Santos, A., Santos, M., Castro, S., Besson, M. (2009). Musical training influences linguistic abilities in 8-year-old children: More evidence for brain plasticity. Cerebral Cortex, 19 (3), 712-723. https://academic.oup.com/cercor/article/19/3/712/436400

Patel, A. Music, Language and the Brain. Oxford: University Press, 2008.

Schellenberg, E. G. (2004). Music lessons enhance IQ. American Psychological Society, 15 (8), 511-514. https://msu.edu/course/psy/401/snapshot.afs/Readings/WK5.PresentB.Schellenberg%20(2004).pdf


MUSIC-MAKING AND MATH

Courey, S., Balogh, E., Siker, J., Paik, J. (2012). Academic Music: Music instruction to engage third grade students in learning basic fraction concepts. Educational Studies in Mathematics.http://www.artsedsearch.org/summaries/academic-music-music-instruction-to-engage-third-grade-students-in-learning-basic-fraction-concepts

Patel, A., J. Rosenberg, J., Slevc, L. (2009). Making psycholinguistics musical: Self-paced reading time evidence for shared processing of linguistic and musical syntax. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 16 (2), 374-381.

Rauscher, F.H., & LeMieux, M.T. (2003). Piano, rhythm, and singing instruction improve different aspects of spatial-temporal reasoning in head start children. Cognitive Neuroscience Society.


MUSIC-MAKING AND READING

Anvari, S.H., Trainor, L.J, Woodside, J, & Levy, B.A. (2002). Relations among musical skills, phonological processing, and early reading ability in preschool children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 83 (20), 111-130.

Gordon, R., Fehd, H., McCandliss, B. (2015). Does music training enhance literacy skills? A meta-analysis. Frontiers of Psychology, 6, 1777. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4664655/

Gromko, J.E., (2005). The effect of music instruction on phonemic awareness in beginning readers. Journal of Research in Music Education, 53 (3), 199-209. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ739989

Habib, M., Lardy, C., Desiles, T., Commeiras, C., Chobert, J., Besson, M., (2016). Music and dyslexia: A new musical training method to improve reading and related disorders. Frontiers in Psychology. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00026/full

Kraus, N. http://www.brainvolts.northwestern.edu/publications.php

Lamb S. J., Gregory A. H. (1993). The relationship between music and reading in beginning readers. Educational Psychology, 13, 19–2710.1080/0144341930130103 [CrossRef]

Loui, P., Kroog, K., Zuk, J., Winner, E., Schlaug, G. (2011). Relating pitch awareness to phonemic awareness in children: implications for tone-deafness and dyslexia. Frontiers in Psychology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3108552/?tool=pubmed

Ludke, K., Ferreira, F., Overy, K. (2014). Singing can facilitate foreign language learning. Memory & Cognition, Vol. 42, 1, 41–52. http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758%2Fs13421-013-0342-5

Lundetrae, K., Thomson., J. (2017). Rhythm production at school entry as a predictor of poor reading and spelling at the end of first grade. Reading and Writing, 31(1), 215-237.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5752745/

Tierney, A., Kraus, N. (2013). Music Training for the Development of Reading Skills. In Merzenich, M., Nahum, M., Vleet, T., ed: Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 207, pp. 209-241. http://www.brainvolts.northwestern.edu/documents/Tierney_Kraus_Chapter_2014.pdf

The U.S. Department of Education What Works Clearinghouse (2014) found that repeated reading “was found to have potentially positive effects on reading comprehension and no discernible effects on alphabetics, reading fluency, and general reading achievement for students with learning disabilities.” 
https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/InterventionReports/wwc_repeatedreading_051314.pdf


MUSIC-MAKING AND DEVELOPMENT

Bowmer, A., Mason, K., Knight, J., Welch, G. (2018). Investigating the impact of musical intervention on preschool children’s executive function. Frontiers in Psychology, 9:2389. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307457/

Gerry, D., Unrau, A., Trainor, L. (2012). Active music classes in infancy enhance musical, communicative and social development. Developmental Science, 15(3), 398-407. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01142.x/full


EVIDENCE-BASED STRATEGIES

TUNE into READING (TiR) Software

Bennett, S.V., Calderone, C., Dedrick, R.F. Gunn, A.A. (2015). “Do I have to leave?” Beyond linear text: struggling readers’ motivation with an innovative musical program. Reading Improvement. 52 (2), 51-10 (10). https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/prin/rimp/2015/00000052/00000002/art00002

Biggs, M.C., Watkins, N.A. (2008). Reading fluency through alternative text: Rereading with an interact sing-to-read program embedded within a middle school music classroom. Journal on School Educational Technology. 4(1), 24-35. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1098646

Biggs, M.C., Homan, S., Dedrick, R., Minick, V., Rasinksi, R. (2008), Using an interactive singing software program: A comparative study of struggling middle school readers. Reading Psychology, 29(3), 195-213. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02702710802073438

Biggs, M.C. (2007). Reading fluency through alternative text: Rereading with an interactive sing-to-read program embedded within middle school music classroom. Scholar Commons. Ph.D. Dissertation. https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1633&context=etd&sei-redir=1#search=%E2%80%9DDr.+Marie+Biggs+USF

Biggs, M.C., Homan, S.P., Dedrick, R. (2005). Does singing improve reading skills? Using unique “learn-to-sing” software with struggling middle school readers. Pilot study internal to University of South Florida. www.tuneintoreading.com/pdf/ResearchAbstract_I.pdf


Rhythmic Training for Students with Dyslexia

Habib, M., Lardy, C., Desiles, T., Commeiras, C., Chobert, J., Besson, M., (2016). Music and dyslexia: A new musical training method to improve reading and related disorders. Frontiers in Psychology. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00026/full


Affirming Parallel Concepts

Olson, E. K. B. (2003). Affirming parallel concepts among reading, mathematics, and music through Kodály music instruction. Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa. Dissertation Abstracts International, 64 (12) 4400A.


Same-Language-Subtitling

Kolthari, B. (2015). Same language subtitling on TV: putting children’s reading literacy on a path to lifelong practice and improvement. PlanetRead: Executive Summary. AID-386-F-12-00003. https://www.planetread.org/images/pdf/research/Research-Article-2015-SLS-Impact-in-Maharashtra-Aug-4-2015.pdf

Kothari, B., Bandyopadhyay, T. (2014) Same language subtitling of bollywood film songs on TV: effects on literacy. Information Technologies and International Development. 10 (4)
https://itidjournal.org/index.php/itid/article/view/1307/502

McCall, W.G. & Craig, C. (2009). Same-Language-Subtitling (SLS): Using Subtitled Music Video for Reading Growth. In G. Siemens & C. Fulford (Eds.), Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2009--World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (pp. 3983-3992). Honolulu, HI, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved January 26, 2019 from https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/32055/. Note: the U.S. Department of Education What Works Clearing House found that these results were statistically significant. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED538460.pdf


Contact Ann Kay
annckay@comcast.net
952.237.2094